Application of the hottest analyzer in life scienc

2022-08-19
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Application of analytical instruments in life science and environmental science

in order to better understand and transform nature, people need certain tools to extend the functions of hands and eyes. Analytical instruments not only provide people with the possibility of continuously understanding nature, but also play a guarantee role in the process of transforming nature. Almost all walks of life need to use analytical data to control the production process and characterize the quality of products, so as to ensure the safe production and rational use of various products. In the process of industrial production, the guarantee of personal safety and health is also inseparable from analytical data. In recent years, the development and in-depth research of life science and environmental science have further put forward new challenges and stringent requirements for analytical instruments. Specifically, the amount of analytical samples is getting smaller and smaller, and has been reduced from micro level to ultra micro level. The concentration of components to be measured has been reduced from 10-6 level (ppm level) to 10-12 level (PPT level) or even lower in the 1950s. Now, there are technologies with monitoring limits as low as 10-18 level (attogrom level)

I. application of analytical instruments in life science

life science takes the life process of biology as the research object, and it is also an interdisciplinary subject formed by the mutual penetration of biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics and other disciplines. In terms of basic science, life science is likely to develop the fastest and have the greatest impact in the future. In fact, the world's science and technology developed countries have listed life science as a priority area for development. The 21st century is the century of life science. The fields of life science mainly include ecological balance, biochemistry, medical diagnosis, health care, pharmaceutical manufacturing, drug testing, food nutrition, etc. Analytical instruments play an important role

when referring to today's life sciences, we can't help mentioning the number one project in this field, namely the human gene research program. Since its official launch in 1990, through the joint efforts of scientists all over the world, the sequencing of the human genome has been completed. This element is assembled by tepex and Durethan of LANXESS, which is beneficial to explore various instruments and means of macromolecules nucleic acids, proteins, structures and functions. For example, polymerase chain amplification instrument (PCR) made by complementary pairing of gene bases. Capillary gel electrophoresis is 25 times faster than traditional plate gel electrophoresis because of its rapid, accurate and quantitative determination of protein, nucleic acid and DNA, which greatly promotes the realization of this grand plan. In recent years, a series of mass spectrometry soft ionization technologies have been developed, which has made a breakthrough innovation in mass spectrometry technology, and the application of mass spectrometry technology in life science has been unprecedented expanded. Capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry (CE/MS) has been successfully applied to the identification of polypeptides and proteins. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (fti-cr-ms) has made it possible to identify proteins at the level of 10-18m0.1l-1. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) can detect the sequence analysis of single nucleotide polypeptides and oligonucleotides, liquid chromatography Electrospray spray mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS) analyzes glycoproteins, which solves the difficulties in the study of sugar biomolecules due to the complexity of glycosyl chains and the structural analysis of glycoproteins. Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) can be used for quantitative analysis of protein secondary structure and study of protein conformation changes. It can track the structural transformation between DNA right-handed helix and left-handed helix for nucleic acid analysis. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), such as high field and multi-dimensional NMR, brings life science research to a new level. It can not only study sugars and nucleic acids with few residues, but also study the interaction and bonding between peptides and proteins. Multi-dimensional NMR can study the structure of proteins with more than 150 residues, but also the amino acid sequence of proteins. It is used to detect various body fluids, hematuria, amniotic fluid, brain and spinal cord, etc. it is very useful for studying drug metabolism and toxic effects. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are of great significance in the determination of trace elements in human body. Many elements, especially trace elements, are necessary nutrients for biological life and development, but some elements, especially heavy metal yuan 1 If the element is not properly placed during jaw clamping, it will become a toxin if it is absorbed too much. The resolution of scanning X-ray microscopy (SXM) can reach nm, and living biological samples can be observed without staining and dehydration. Other analytical instruments, such as gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, fluorescence photometer, Raman spectrometer, have many successful examples in studying the structure and changes of biological macromolecules, the secondary structure of proteins, and the interaction between DNA and carcinogens

in recent years, special life science analysis instruments, such as dynamic electrocardiograph, ultrasonic diagnostic instrument, magnetic resonance imaging instrument, blood gas analyzer, biochemical analyzer, blood cell analyzer and immune analyzer, have been actually used in clinical diagnosis

second, the application of analytical instruments in Environmental Science

human beings have broken the original balance of the environment while using the environment, developing and transforming the environment, and developing the economy. Due to the excessive exploitation of natural resources by human beings, the destructive use of land; Due to the unreasonable industrial structure and industrial development layout, and the arbitrary discharge of toxic and harmful substances into the nature in the production process; Due to the excessive expansion of population and the sharp increase of domestic waste, all these have made the environment worse. In order to carry out real-time and accurate monitoring of environmental quality and ecological environment, modern environmental monitoring and analysis instruments have played a great role

analytical instruments can be divided into water pollution analysis, air pollution analysis, soil pollution analysis and biological pollution analysis according to the objects of environmental analysis. The analytical instruments include optical analysis, electrochemical analysis, radioactive analysis, thermal analysis and chromatographic analysis. They are used for organic and inorganic analysis, which can be qualitative and quantitative. They can be used for environmental pollution analysis, laboratory analysis through flow sampling and remote monitoring of pollution sources

the commonly used analytical instruments in the environmental analysis laboratory include: optical instruments, such as ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, fluorescence photometer, atomic absorption photometer, plasma spectrometer, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and infrared spectrometer; Electrochemical instruments: such as pH meter, conductivity meter, coulometer, potentiometric titrator, ion activity meter and various polarometers; Chromatographic instruments, such as ion chromatograph, gas chromatography/4 and spring fatigue testing machine, have a validity period of 1 year for the calibration of their indication error under normal use conditions, such as mass spectrometry online and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry online. It is mainly used to analyze the chromaticity, so42-, conductivity, concentration, total organic carbon, inorganic matter, metal, organic matter, pesticides, etc. in the environment

due to the application of microelectronics, micro sensors, computers, new materials and various high technologies, environmental analysis instruments are developing towards miniaturization, miniaturization and multi parameterization. At present, portable gas chromatographs, near-infrared spectrometers, X-ray analyzers and multi parameter water quality analyzers have been launched (for the determination of water pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, temperature and other parameters). Portable spectrophotometer is used for on-site monitoring and testing cyanide, ammonia nitrogen, phenols, amines, arsenic, mercury, barium and other items. Small toxic and harmful gas monitor is used for toxic and harmful Co, Cl2, H2S, SO2 and combustible gases on site

Third, how to play the role of analytical instruments

today, with the rapid development of science and technology, without the support and cooperation of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge and theory, and without the assistance of sophisticated instruments and equipment, it is difficult to obtain breakthrough and leading scientific research achievements. Large analytical instruments and equipment also play a guiding role in driving the pace of scientific research development. In the current basic research or applied basic research field in China, the research direction chosen by researchers often depends on the existing or to be configured instruments and equipment. In other words, the equipment in which aspect is equipped will create the corresponding scientific research environment, thus deriving the corresponding scientific research direction

in the direction of life science and environmental science, analytical instruments in our province are mainly concentrated in Colleges and universities and scientific research institutes. It is still at a low level. There are few sophisticated analytical instruments. General analytical instruments and equipment are invested repeatedly. Professionals who can master and use analytical instruments are scarce. The cooperation and exchange with domestic and foreign analytical instrument industry and academic groups are insufficient. To this end, we should take a variety of measures to carry out system reform, optimize the combination, share resources and mobilize all favorable factors, hoping to catch up with or exceed the domestic advanced level in a relatively short time

1. Strengthen management and make full use of it. Today, when the country is not very rich, how to effectively use high-precision instruments and equipment and how to use the results is a very important issue. The familiarity of scientific workers and equipment managers with the instrument, whether it can achieve the expected purpose, whether it can raise the scientific research level of the unit to a higher level, and how many scientific workers in the unit use it and the management measures of the equipment. Sharing is closely related. Large analytical instruments and equipment should be managed based on the common principle. Break all the restrictions of the Department to give full play to the utilization rate of analytical instruments

2. The number of colleges and universities, scientific research institutions and the overall scientific research level also have uneven development, and there is a large gap between them. In the allocation of flight instruments and equipment, the principle of coexistence of basic equipment and high-precision equipment should be followed. While meeting the needs of high-level research, we need to take into account the overall improvement of scientific research level, and appropriately tilt the investment in weak links, so as to achieve the purpose of improving the overall research level

3. Reasonable allocation. With the support of limited economic and financial resources, the analytical instruments and equipment of colleges and universities and scientific research institutions should strive for the principle of small-scale decentralized and large-scale centralized allocation, that is, the basic analytical instruments and equipment with inaccurate speed control can be owned by most units

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